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The difference between LED lighting source and traditional light source

The difference between LED illumination source and traditional light source is mainly in the three characteristics of heat, electricity and light.

1. Thermal characteristics

Although the LED has little heat, it requires a large number of LEDs in the LED lighting, so it generates a lot of heat. Although LED efficiency is relatively high, high efficiency only supports operation in small currents. Under high current and high temperature conditions, the efficiency is low.

In addition, phosphor type LEDs lose energy when converting wavelengths, thereby generating heat. Continued high temperatures will result in reduced lifetime of LED chips, phosphors, and encapsulating resins. Therefore, in order to maintain the advantages of "high efficiency" and "long life" of the LED, it is necessary to control the junction temperature of the LED.

2. Characteristics of electricity

LED power is very different from incandescent and fluorescent lamps. Incandescent lamps can be connected directly to 220V AC. Fluorescent lamps use 220V AC, although they have ballasts and transfer switches. The power supply of the LED requires a constant current of DC, so it is necessary to convert the 220V AC to DC. The inefficiency of the power supply will directly affect the efficiency of the entire lighting fixture, so improving power efficiency is particularly important for improving LED lighting efficiency.

There are two main methods for adjusting LED light. One is to change the constant current, and the other is to change the pulse modulation. LEDs emit light when electrons and holes recombine, and the light beam is dependent on current. When the current is small, the beam and current are basically proportional, but as the LED current increases, the heat increases, resulting in lower luminous efficiency, and the beam and current are not proportional.

In the method of changing the pulse duty ratio, the brightness can be changed according to the pulse duty ratio due to the Talbot-Plateau effect (the human eye perceives the average brightness during the repeated time after repeated flashes).

3. Characteristics of light

Compared with incandescent and fluorescent lamps, one LED emits less light, so it is necessary to use multiple LEDs. At the same time, because the LED has a small light-emitting area and high brightness, it is easy to be dizzy when viewed directly by the human eye. In order to reduce the brightness, a diffusion plate is required. However, when a diffusing plate is used, light is diverged in various directions, reducing the efficiency of light.

The distribution of light distribution of LEDs, incandescent lamps, and fluorescent lamps varies. The light distribution refers to the direction of the light source and the intensity of the light in each direction. Even for light sources of the same beam, the illuminance distribution will be different if the distribution of light distribution is different. Sometimes there is a situation where the illumination that is originally intended to be illuminated is reduced, and the rest is increased.

To reduce the waste of light and control the distribution of light distribution, lenses and mirrors are required. The LED itself has the advantages of small light-emitting area, light emission range in the hemisphere, and rotationally symmetric distribution of light distribution. Together with the lens and the mirror, it can form a good light source.

Others in the light source properties, as well as the spectrum. The luminescence spectrum of an LED is concentrated in a narrow range of specific wavelengths and does not emit infrared rays. Therefore, it is preferable to use an LED when it is not desired to heat the illuminating object. However, the LED itself will generate heat, so care must be taken to prevent it from conducting heat. It is also important to note that the LED temperature of the phosphor type changes and the color temperature changes.

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